Various Patterns of Hero Journeys from folklorists who compared hero stories from around the world. Levi-Strauss' is the one I rely on most. Kluckhohn's is the most general and useful of the other type. Campbell's coordinates well with patterns of the ritual process. Most were produced in the mid-20th century from comparisons of many stories
Lévi-Strauss’s view of the hero (based on
comparison of myths from around the world, but especially Native American myths)
of impossible mediations between oppositions which are ordered according to
Geography: e.g. east – west
Cosmology: e.g. below – above
Logic: e.g. integration, resolve distances
Sociology: e.g. patrilocal – matrilocal residence
Techno-economic schema: e.g. water famine à
Global integration (of 2 exreme propositions
Hero = Mediator between dualities / oppositions
Often in TWIN form: Messiah & Trickster
Kluckhohn's Pattern (based on his study of Spencer’s
analysis of Navaho mythology which lead to his own realization of these
similarities with other world mythology)
The hero has adventures and achievements of extraordinary kind (e.g., slaying monsters, overcoming death, controlling the weather).
There is often something special about the birth of the hero (occasionally heroine)
Help from animals is a frequent motif.
A separation from one or both parents at an early age is involved.
There is antagonism and violence toward near kin, though mainly toward siblings or father-in-law. This hostility may be channeled in one or both directions. It may be masked but is more often expressed in violent acts.
There is eventual return and recognition with honor. The hero’s achievements are realized by his immediate family and redound in some way to their benefit and that of the larger group to which the family belongs.
Georg von Hahn’s Hero Pattern (based on biographies
of 14 heroes--mostly Western--including Oedipus)
The hero is of illegitimate birth
His mother is the princess of the country
His father is a god or a foreigner
There are signs warning of his ascendance
For this reason he is abandoned
He is suckled by animals
He is brought up by a childless shepherd couple
He is a high-spirited youth
He seeks service in a foreign country
He returns victorious and goes back to the foreign land
He slays his original persecutors, accedes to rule the country, and sets
his mother free
He founds cities
The manner of his death is extraordinary
He is reviled because of incest and he dies young
He dies by an act of revenge at the hands of an insulted servant
He murders his younger brother
De Vries Hero Pattern (based on comparison of
traditional folk tales, mostly European)
The hero is begotten
He is born
His youth is threatened
He is brought up
He often acquires invulnerability
He fights with the dragon or other monster
He wins a maiden, usually after overcoming great dangers
He makes an expedition to the underworld
He returns to the land from which he was once banished and conquers his
Raglan’s Hero Pattern (based on comparison of 18 classical myths,
mostly from the Western world)
His mother is a royal virgin
His father is a king, and
Often a near relative of his mother, but
The circumstances of his conception are unusual, and
He is also reputed to be the son of a god.
At birth an attempt is made, often by his father, to kill him, but
He is spirited away, and
Reared by foster parents in a far country
We are told nothing of his childhood, but
On reaching manhood he returns or goes to his future kingdom.
After a victory over the king and/or a giant, dragon, or wild beat,
He marries a princess, often the daughter of his predecessor, and
For a time he reigns uneventfully, and
Prescribes laws, but
Later he loses favor with the gods and/or his subjects, and
Is driven from the throne and city.
He meets with a mysterious death,
Often at the top of a hill.
His children, if any, do not succeed him.
His body is not buried, but nevertheless
He has one or more holy sepulchers.
Joseph Campbell’s Structure of the Heroic Journey (based on comparison of parts of narratives from around the world). Similar to the pattern of separation, initiation/transformation, return of the ritual process (see Victor Turner)
The Call to Adventure
Refusal of the Call
Crossing the First Threshold
Passage Into the Realm of Night
THE STAGE OF TRIALS & VICTORIES OF INITIATION:
The Road of Trials
The Meeting with the Goddess
Receiving the Ultimate Boon
THE RETURN & REINTEGRATION WITH SOCIETY:
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