Various Patterns of Hero Journeys from folklorists who compared hero stories from around the world. Levi-Strauss' is the one I rely on most. Kluckhohn's is the most general and useful of the other type. Campbell's coordinates well with patterns of the ritual process. Most were produced in the mid-20th century from comparisons of many stories 

Claude Lévi-Strauss’s view of the hero (based on comparison of myths from around the world, but especially Native American myths) = Structuralism

o     Geography: e.g. east – west

o     Cosmology: e.g. below – above

o     Logic: e.g. integration, resolve distances

o     Sociology: e.g. patrilocal – matrilocal residence

o     Techno-economic schema: e.g. water famine à hunt à success

o     Global integration (of 2 exreme propositions

·       Hero = Mediator between dualities / oppositions

o     Often in TWIN form: Messiah & Trickster

Clyde Kluckhohn's Pattern (based on his study of Spencer’s analysis of Navaho mythology which lead to his own realization of these similarities with other world mythology)

Johann Georg von Hahn’s Hero Pattern (based on biographies of 14 heroes--mostly Western--including Oedipus)

1.    The hero is of illegitimate birth

2.    His mother is the princess of the country

3.    His father is a god or a foreigner

4.    There are signs warning of his ascendance

5.    For this reason he is abandoned

6.    He is suckled by animals

7.    He is brought up by a childless shepherd couple

8.    He is a high-spirited youth

9.    He seeks service in a foreign country

10.  He returns victorious and goes back to the foreign land

11. He slays his original persecutors, accedes to rule the country, and sets his mother free

12. He founds cities

13. The manner of his death is extraordinary

14. He is reviled because of incest and he dies young

15. He dies by an act of revenge at the hands of an insulted servant

16. He murders his younger brother

 Jan De Vries Hero Pattern (based on comparison of traditional folk tales, mostly European)

             1.    The hero is begotten

2.    He is born

3.    His youth is threatened

4.    He is brought up

5.    He often acquires invulnerability

6.    He fights with the dragon or other monster

7.    He wins a maiden, usually after overcoming great dangers

8.    He makes an expedition to the underworld

9.    He returns to the land from which he was once banished and conquers his enemies

10.  He dies

Lord Raglan’s Hero Pattern (based on comparison of 18 classical myths, mostly from the Western world)

1.    His mother is a royal virgin

2.    His father is a king, and

3.    Often a near relative of his mother, but

4.    The circumstances of his conception are unusual, and

5.    He is also reputed to be the son of a god.

6.    At birth an attempt is made, often by his father, to kill him, but

7.    He is spirited away, and

8.    Reared by foster parents in a far country

9.    We are told nothing of his childhood, but

10.  On reaching manhood he returns or goes to his future kingdom.

11.  After a victory over the king and/or a giant, dragon, or wild beat,

12.  He marries a princess, often the daughter of his predecessor, and

13.  Becomes king

14.  For a time he reigns uneventfully, and

15.  Prescribes laws, but

16.  Later he loses favor with the gods and/or his subjects, and

17.   Is driven from the throne and city.

18.   He meets with a mysterious death,

19.   Often at the top of a hill.

20.   His children, if any, do not succeed him.

21.   His body is not buried, but nevertheless

22.   He has one or more holy sepulchers.  

Joseph Campbell’s Structure of the Heroic Journey (based on comparison of parts of narratives from around the world). Similar to the pattern of separation, initiation/transformation, return of the ritual process (see Victor Turner)


1.    The Call to Adventure

2.    Refusal of the Call

3.    Supernatural Aid

4.    Crossing the First Threshold

5.    Passage Into the Realm of Night


1.    The Road of Trials

2.    The Meeting with the Goddess

3.    Temptation

4.    Atonement

5.    Receiving the Ultimate Boon


1.    Reconciliation

2.    Healing

3.    Paradise Regained